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Application domain description
The potential advantages of aluminum as an ideal lightweight material are becoming increasingly apparent. Therefore, in recent years, aluminum has also been used more and more in the field of aviation and aerospace.
Lightweight and economical to help aluminum material "flying Apsaras""
According to statistics, the weight of the space launch vehicle will be reduced by about $20 thousand per 1kg. Therefore, the weight loss of the structure in space can be described as "calculation of grams"". If the weight loss of 15% fighter aircraft, it can shorten the distance of 15%, increase the range of 20%, increase the payload of 30%. Therefore, all countries in the world attach great importance to the development and development of lightweight structural materials for aerospace. Aluminum has attracted special attention because of its light weight, high strength, convenient processing and price economy.
At present, in the design of aircraft, the designers will choose structural materials with high specific strength and specific stiffness to reduce the structural weight of aircraft, improve flight performance and increase economic benefits. At the same time, the structural material should also be good machinability, easy to make the required parts. At present, all kinds of aircraft are made of aluminum alloy as the main structural material. On the aircraft skin, beams, ribs and stringers, bulkheads and landing gear can be manufactured using Aluminum Alloy. The amount of aluminum used varies according to the use of the aircraft. A large number of civil models, which focus on economic benefits, are heavily made of aluminium alloys, partly because aluminium alloys are cheaper. Such as Boeing 767 aircraft used aluminum alloy, accounting for about 81% of the weight of the body structure. Military aircraft have relatively reduced aluminium usage because of their good operational performance, such as the use of 35.5% aluminum alloys in F-15 high-performance fighter aircraft.
Part Aluminum Alloy because of its good performance at low temperature, can work in liquid hydrogen and oxygen environment, with concentrated nitric acid and UDMH unreactive, has good welding performance, so it is a good material for making liquid rocket. The launch of the "Appollo" spacecraft, Saturn's 5 launch vehicle, is made of aluminum alloys at all levels of fuel tanks, oxidizer tanks, box compartments, interstage, tail, and instrument compartments. The passenger compartment, the shuttle's forward fuselage, the fuselage, rear fuselage, tail, flaps, elevons and tailplane are made of Aluminum Alloy. The main structural materials of various man-made earth satellites and space probes are also aluminum alloys. From what we can see, aluminum alloy plays an important role in the aerospace field.
Aluminum alloys are widely used in aerospace industry
Application and development of Aluminum Alloy in aerospace can be divided into several stages: in 1950s, the main goal is to lose weight and improve the stiffness and strength of alloy; 60-70 alloy's main objective is to improve the durability and damage tolerance, the development of 7XXX alloys T73 and T76 heat treatment system, 7050 Alloy and high purity alloy; 80s as fuel prices and further reduce the structural weight; since 90s, Aluminum Alloy development goal is to further weight loss, and further improve the alloy durability and damage tolerance. For example, to develop a new type of Aluminum Alloy with high strength and high toughness, high corrosion resistance, before whole complex structural components is replaced by a lot of parts assembled components using large plate processing, not only can reduce the structural weight, but also can ensure the stability of performance.

At present, the aluminum alloys used in aerospace mainly include: aluminum alloy castings, aluminum alloy large extrusion profiles, aluminum alloy thick plate and aluminum - lithium alloy.
Aluminum Alloy casting: in modern aircraft structure, the use of the 1500-2000 aluminum castings, according to different use conditions and parts, mainly uses 3 kinds of basic Aluminum Alloy: high strength Aluminum Alloy, heat resistance and corrosion resistance Aluminum Alloy Aluminum Alloy. High strength aluminum alloy is mainly used for aircraft fuselage parts, engine room, seats, control systems and so on. Heat resistant aluminum alloy parts are mainly used for engine room, air exchange system and so on. Corrosion resistant aluminum alloy has high enough performance index, its strength, plasticity, impact toughness, fatigue and weldability are very good, and more importantly, it has corrosion resistance, so that it can be used in water aircraft.
Aluminum Alloy large extrusion: with the progress of science and technology, Aluminum Alloy profiles toward large-scale, integrated, shallow, high accuracy, wide size shape complex development, application scope has been extended to civil aviation materials with large section profiles, the main features are: large scale homogenization and overall, thin and lightweight, section size and shape, precision, performance and quality. Aerospace large extrusion profiles are: the whole wall with rib, I-girder, spar, comb profile, hollow beam profile, mainly used in aircraft, spacecraft and other aerospace aircraft force structure and helicopter rotor parts shaped hollow beam and plane track.
Aluminum Alloy plate: Aluminum Alloy plate is an important structural material in modern aerospace industry, aluminum industry in developed countries has continuously developed a new Aluminum Alloy plate excellent performance, widely used in aircraft frame, integral panel, landing gear, skin etc.. They have high strength, good toughness, anti stress properties and exfoliation corrosion resistance, and fracture toughness, fatigue crack propagation ability, Aluminum Alloy plate as aerospace material with good comprehensive properties.
Al Li alloy: aluminum lithium alloy is the fastest growing field of aviation metal materials in the past ten years. Lithium is the lighter element in the world, and lithium alloy is formed by adding lithium metal as alloy element to metal aluminum. After the addition of lithium metal, the alloy can reduce the specific gravity and increase the rigidity, while still maintaining higher strength, better corrosion resistance and fatigue resistance, and proper ductility. Because of these characteristics, this new type of alloy has attracted wide attention in the aerospace industry. It is estimated that if the use of advanced aluminum lithium alloy manufacturing Boeing aircraft to replace the traditional Aluminum Alloy, weight can be reduced by 14.6%, fuel saving 5.4%, aircraft cost will decline by 2.1% per year per aircraft flight costs will be reduced by 2.2%. Therefore, aluminum lithium alloy is considered as the most ideal structural material for aerospace industry. In 1980s, the upsurge of research on Al Li alloy has been carried out all over the world. But because of the special application background of Al Li alloy, the key technologies in the research of Al Li alloy are highly confidential.
In China, aluminum alloy has been widely used in aviation and aerospace, and has promoted the development of aerospace industry in china. At the same time, China has entered the world, only the United States, Russia, Britain and several ranks, production and application of aluminum lithium alloy which is one of the advanced countries and new materials, development and application in China Aluminum Alloy on scientific research institutions and enterprises to jointly, the theory research results should be applied and promoted Aluminum Alloy to industrialized production from the laboratory research and application in China Aerospace industry.
Aluminum alloy plays an irreplaceable role in the aerospace field of our country, and has made important contributions to the writing of new brilliance in the aerospace industry of our country.